Chiropractic through the years
Hodgins Commission recommends shut down
In 1915, the Ontario government issued a report, the Hodgins Commission, an investigation into the state of medical education in Ontario. This report noted “new avenues of healing which had not previously been dreamed of,” including “bone setting”, “manipulation” and “mechanotherapy”. This commission reacted as expected and recommended that Ontario’s three chiropractic colleges be shut down. The commission did recognize the value in these methods and recommended they be added to the medical curriculum.
Ontario College of Physicians and Surgeons attempts to limit chiropractors’ role in health care
In 1925 the Ontario College of Physicians and Surgeons in an effort to limit the chiropractors’ role in health care, requested the government enact legislation to regulate the health practitioners out of their jurisdiction. As a result the “Drugless Practitioners Act” of 1925 was enacted to regulate chiropractors, optometrists and other new professions. Chiropractic was now legal but strictly limited.
New regulations passed
In 1937, upon the recommendation of the Honourable the Attorney-General, new regulations were passed which “further emphasized the requirement ‘by diagnosis’ for chiropractors by inserting the words ‘(including all diagnostic methods)’”. According to the College of Physicians and Surgeons this was an amendment: … that was vicious from the standpoint of the College and certainly contrary to the intention of the Legislature that those under The Drugless Practitioners Act were to be limited to ‘treatment’ in the ordinary meaning of the term as something quite apart from diagnosis. These expanded definitions have been troublesome to the College ever since, making it almost impossible to successfully prosecute a drugless practitioner for illegal practice, and laying a base for the right to enjoy the facilities of the Provincial Laboratories as a diagnostic aid.
Board of Directors of Chiropractic was advised that it no longer had control over unethical advertising
In 1955 the regulations were again changed by the government and the Board of Directors of Chiropractic was advised that it no longer had control over unethical advertising. This presented serious problems, not only for the Board, but also for the Ontario Chiropractic Association.
Many in responsible positions in the profession wondered why enabling legislation was being thwarted, by whom, and if these continuing events were deliberate. This removal of control over advertising from a piece of so-called “regulatory legislation”, was the direct result of
government action, and it was continued for an entire decade before the Department of Health could be convinced to restore the control. This was done simply by reauthorizing a regulation which had been in force from 1944 to 1955, and which the government itself had rescinded.
College of Physicians and Surgeons attempt to enact restrictions
In 1959 the Ontario the College of Physicians and Surgeons published a report on “Osteopathy and Chiropractic” outlining a powerful offensive policy to give chiropractic in Ontario a knock back. This triggered several Royal Commissions throughout the 1960’s looking at the state of health care in Canada and chiropractic care in particular.
American Medical Association (AMA) forms a committee to eliminate chiropractic
The American Medical Association (AMA) in 1963 formed a Committee on Quakery which worked to eliminate chiropractic. A primary method to achieve this goal was to make it unethical for medical physicians to professionally associate with chiropractors.
American Medical Association (AMA)’s House of Delegates passes resolution labelling chiropractic an unscientific cult
The American Medical Association (AMA)’s House of Delegates passed a resolution labelling chiropractic as an unscientific cult. The AMA’s purpose was to prevent medical physicians from referring patients to chiropractors and from accepting referrals of patients from chiropractors, to prevent chiropractors from obtaining access to hospital diagnostic services and membership on hospital staffs, to prevent medical physicians from teaching at chiropractic college’s or engaging in any joint research, and to prevent any co-operation in the delivery of health care services. The AMA indicated that its actions reflected a genuine and reasonable concern for scientific method in patient care.
Medical doctors steered from advising about chiropractors
Medical doctors should not sit or participate on regulatory or advisory boards where the conduct or qualifications of chiropractors are involved.
Chair, Section of Orthopedics, BCMA to president BCMA to lobby against chiropractic
Chair, Section of Orthopedics, BCMA to president BCMA to lobby against chiropractic.
WCB has no objection to a transfer from a physician to a chiropractor or vice versa
WCB has no objection to a transfer from a physician to a chiropractor or vice versa.
Letter to Worker’s Compensation Board BC opposing chiropractic
Letter from Registrar, CPS, to Worker’s Compensation Board BC opposing chiropractic and stating medical doctors would not work in co-operation with chiropractors.
Requests for an independent Government investigation into the role of the chiropractor in the medical field
BC physio regulator/association invitation to CPSBC to attend meeting to organize a combined approach to MOH (BC Ministry of Health) to request an independent Government investigation into the role of the chiropractor in the medical field.
Letter from BC orthopedic advocating against chiropractic
Letter from BC orthopedic section to BCMA Committee advocating against chiropractic but manipulation should belong to medical profession.
Letter from Canadian Medical Association to American College of Surgeons
Letter from Canadian Medical Association to American College of Surgeons acknowledging US position and stating it represents the attitude of Canadian Medical Association and many affiliate societies.
Canadian Medical Association circulates position
Canadian Medical Association circulates position of American College of Surgeons to Canadian medical affiliates.
BC physio regulator/association tries to block chiropractors
BC physio regulator/association writes to CPSBC regarding preventing Doctor of Chiropractic from participating in the 5 government community human resource health centres. Reference to Interdisciplinary Meeting regarding chiropractic in BC.
Letter discourages chiropractors from using x-rays
Letter from BC Division of Canadian Society of Radiologists indicating no official complaints or documentation of chiropractor’s negligence but appear to discourage “untrained” personnel using x-rays.
Letter reaffirms suggestions not to release chiropractors or naturopaths information
Letter from American College of Surgeons which references Canadian Medical Association resolution “reaffirming” it is contrary to accepted medical practice to release to chiropractors or naturopaths information.
Other health care professions say chiropractors are an unacceptable member of the “Health Team”
BC Physiotherapy Interdisciplinary Meeting on Chiropractic organizing other health professions to state chiropractors as an unacceptable member of the “Health Team”.
BC Physio Regulatory/Association organizes campaign against chiropractic
BC Physio Regulatory/Association organizes campaign against chiropractic and submission to Minister of Health Dennis Cocke.
Letter states chiropractic plays no role in health care
Letter from BCMA (referencing College of Physicians and Surgeons of BC) to BC Physiotherapy Association stating chiropractic plays no role in health care and cannot condone receiving or giving referrals by members of the health team.
Letter opposes chiropractors but not chiropractic
Letter, page 1, from BC physio. Information to the Health Care Delivery Committee discusses chiropractic including manipulation should be part of curricula of medical doctors. (note – not opposing adjustment, manipulation, but only who is doing it)
Letter states chiropractors should not be part of the health care team
Registrar CPSBC writes to MOH that chiropractors should not be part of the health care team. This correspondence references the CPSBC participation with other health profession including president of BC branch of Cdn physio association.
letter to St. Paul’s hospital…do not relate professionally with chiropractors
letter to St. Paul’s hospital, not to relate professionally in any way with chiropractors.
Letter says emphatically the chiropractor is not acceptable as a member of the “Health Care Team”
Letter from BC branch of Canadian Physio Association to CPSBC which includes information in a brief stating emphatically the chiropractor is not acceptable as a member of the “Health Care Team”.
American Medical Association opposition to chiropractic may violate antitrust laws
The New York Times released an article revealing that, “The staff of the House Oversight, and Investigation subcommittee has concluded that the campaign of the American Medical Association to eliminate chiropractic service in the United States may violate the antitrust laws.
Unethical to refer to Doctor of Chiropractic and correspondence
WCB and CPSBC regarding adjudicator training advising unethical to refer to Doctor of Chiropractic and correspondence and advice to worker regarding informing physician.
Letter to medical Registrars of all provinces seeking position on chiropractic
Letter to medical Registrars of all provinces seeking position on chiropractic. States BC CPS … unethical for a physician to enable a person not registered to practice medicine, surgery or midwifery. Radiologists will not accept requests from chiropractors. Requests position of each CPS.
patients not entitled to obtain copies of their medical records but entitled to have them transferred to another physician
Letter to Vancouver Province newspaper stating patients not entitled to obtain copies of their medical records but entitled to have them transferred to another physician. (amended by legislation and later CPS information.)
Combines Act and consideration of amendment to Medical Act regarding chiropractic
Letter to CPS directors regarding Combines Act and consideration of amendment to Medical Act regarding chiropractic. Reference to Derek Gellman info to chiropractors.
Radiologists advised against preforming work for chiropractors
Position of Canadian Association of Radiologists: Reports and documents against performing diagnostic imaging for patients of Doctor of Chiropractic.
Lobby against patient referral to x-ray facility not to take referral from Doctor of Chiropractic
Lobby against patient referral to x-ray facility not to take referral from Doctor of Chiropractic. Letter to MOH.
Medical doctors are ethically prohibited from referring to a Doctor of Chiropractic
letter to BC CPS registrant stating medical doctors are ethically prohibited from referring to a Doctor of Chiropractic.
Physio Association writes to CPS advising opposing chiropractic act
Physio Association writes to CPS advising opposing chiropractic act to include extremities and asks CPS to meet to discuss prior to further meetings with MOH.
Physicians not associate with nor provide any assistance to chiropractic
CPS policy physicians not associate with nor provide any assistance to the practice of chiropractic.
Not appropriate for laboratory physicians to accept and act on requisitions from chiropractors
CPS Resolution 81-25 that it is not appropriate for laboratory physicians to accept and act on requisitions from chiropractors (and naturopaths).
British Columbia government introduced Bill 24
The British Columbia government introduced Bill 24, a new Medical Services Act. Significant changes from the present legislation included the following: the Medical Services Plan (MSP) was given enhanced authority to establish and modify payment schedules for different practitioners and different classes of practitioners; and the prohibition against balance billing was extended to all practitioners billing under the plan.
100th anniversary of chiropractic
100th anniversary when Daniel David Palmer in Davenport, Iowa, founded chiropractic in 1895
Medical doctors should not practice in association with chiropractors
CPS letter to CCBC Registrar that medical doctors should not practice in association with chiropractors nor refer the patient to the chiropractor for opinion or treatment.
Physicians should not associate themselves with chiropractors
Following a meeting with BCCA, minutes of CPS states chiropractic is an alternative to medicine. Physicians should not associate themselves in practice with chiropractors.
AMA violates Sherman Act
The United States DistriC1 Court held in 1987 that the AMA and its members, through these actions, had violated the United States Sherman Act by unlawfully conspiring to restrain trade.
Vancouver Sun report of US Court ruling of conspiracy
Vancouver Sun report of US Court ruling of conspiracy. BC CPS is also quoted as saying they do not condone association of medical doctors and chiropractors.
BCMA document of meeting planning opposition to chiropractic school
BCMA document of meeting planning opposition to chiropractic school including political action.
Physiotherapy Association soliciting support to oppose a chiropractic school at UVIC
Physiotherapy Association of BC (PABC) writes to CPS soliciting support to oppose a chiropractic school at UVIC. Additional reference to allied professions supporting legitimate medicine in the province and western world.
Document indicates opposition of medicine to chiropractic school
CPS writes to PABC advising of document indicating opposition of medicine to chiropractic school and will continue to support the excellent work of the PABC on the matter.
Impacts to stakeholders including WorkSafeBC and ICBC
CPS policy that medical doctors not associate, refer, approve DC patient care. (note this impacts stakeholders including WorkSafeBC, ICBC medical legal reports among patient care decision making)
CPS letter “…medical doctors must not associate with Doctors of Chiropractic.”
CPS letter to Doctors of Chiropractic stating medical doctors must not associate with Doctors of Chiropractic and not refer patient to Doctors of Chiropractic for treatment or opinion.
“Regulated Health Professions Act” replaces the Drugless Practitioners Act of 1925
In 1991 as the “Regulated Health Professions Act”. This act replaced the Drugless Practitioners Act of 1925 in regulating chiropractors. This new statute authorized the use of the title “doctor” and granted the right to diagnose, which only four other professions had: optometry, dentistry, medicine and psychology (podiatry was later added). The College of Chiropractors of Ontario was established giving the profession the right of self-regulation under the same legal parameters as the College of Physicians and Surgeons.
Submission by Competition Bureau to Royal Commission on Health Care and Costs
Submission by Competition Bureau to Royal Commission on Health Care and Costs. Discusses the conduct of the College of Physicians and Surgeons and BCMA.
CPS position and advises WorkSafeBC the BCMA will not participate in an appeal panel that includes Doctors of Chiropractic
Proposals for Comment on Medical Review Panel Process. BCMA cites CPS position and advises WorkSafeBC the BCMA will not participate in an appeal panel that includes DCs nor accept decisions where the panel member includes a Doctor of Chiropractic.
CPS advises it is involved in national and provincial discussion on chiropractic
CPS letter to MOH general discussion of chiropractic and new BCMA committee on non traditional medicine. CPS advises it is involved in national and provincial discussion on chiropractic. Reference is made to the College’s submission to the Royal Commission on Health Care and Costs, January 1991 regarding its opposition to chiropractic.
CPA remains opposed to direct referrals of patients to chiropractors
Letter from CPS, Deputy Registrar to St. Anthony’s Medical Centre Victoria, BC. The College’s current position is that remains opposed to direct referrals of patients to chiropractors or to co-management of patients with chiropractors.
CPS “accredited medical diagnostic facilities may not accept referral from Doctor of Chiropractic”
Canada Diagnostics advises CPS directs that government accredited medical diagnostic facilities may not accept referral from Doctor of Chiropractic.
CPS resolution 81-25 affirmed that radiologists not accept requisitions from chiropractors
CPS resolution 81-25 affirmed that radiologists not accept requisitions from chiropractors. CPS RFA #Board C-0912-D to include BC Radiologists and BC Association of Laboratory Physicians.
CPS “pathologists and radiologists should not accept requisitions from chiropractors”
The CPS communicates in the College Quarterly that pathologists and radiologists should not accept requisitions from chiropractors.